The level of poverty in Ireland was evidenced by further comments from O’Connell:

“The last Population Returns of 1841 showed that, out of the whole rural population of Ireland, 46 per cent lived in a single room; the entire human family and the pigs occupied the same apartment together. The next fact was, that of the civil population — that is, of the inhabitants of towns — 36 per cent lived in a single room, and that two or three families sometimes occupied the same room.”


“Destitution in Ireland. Failure of the potato crop”, illustration was published in The Pictorial Times on 22 August 1846. Image courtesy of the National Library of Ireland