Credit: Rembrandt The Anatomy Lesson of Dr Nicolaes Tulp

GRAHAM REID: The Going Rates

Rembrandt: The Anatomy Lesson of Dr Nicolaes Tulp

Considering the latest Yearly Summary contains the most comprehensive data currently available about mortality in Ireland for last year, the first year of the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, this lack of interest is curious to say the least.

(NOTE: Sources for all the data used in this article can be found in the Methods section. If you’d like to know more about the crude mortality rate or the age-standardised mortality rate (or if you’d like to know how to calculate these rates yourself), this short tutorial may be of use to you).

 

The Crude Mortality Rate (CMR)

Last year in Ireland, according to the CSO, 31,765 people died. That’s approximately 2% more deaths than in the previous year, 2019. But when we put these numbers into context, they tell a very different story.

The above chart shows Ireland’s population (in millions) and its total number of deaths (in tens of thousands) for each year from 1996 to 2020. Although the population (blue line) shows a continuous upward trend (Ireland’s population increased by 37% from 3,625,900 in 1996 to 4,977,300 in 2020), the number of deaths (brown line) shows very little change over the 25 year period.

The total number of deaths in 1996 was 31,723; in 2020 it was 31,765; and in the intervening years it never moved higher than 32,608 (1999) or lower than 27,961 (2010). In fact, even if we go back to the 1950s, the total number of deaths each year in Ireland rarely rises above the 34,000 mark.

So comparing the total number of deaths from one year to another (or from one place to another) gives us only very limited information, because the total number of deaths doesn’t take into account the size of a population. To consider a population’s size, we can use a measure called the crude mortality rate(CMR). CMR tells us how many people died per head of population, and is usually expressed per 100,000 people (so for example, a CMR of 985 means that 985 people died for every 100,000 people in the population).

Ireland’s CMR (green line) from 1996 to 2020 can be seen on the chart above. While the total number of deaths (brown line) decreases between 1999 and 2010, the CMR falls more sharply, because it is taking into account Ireland’s growing population. As the total number of deaths begins to rise after 2010, the CMR remains quite stable, not moving outside the range of 630 – 647 for the years between 2012 and 2020.

In one of the few pieces to even acknowledge the publication of this year’s Vital Statistics Yearly Summary, the aptly titled ‘A Distorted Perspective’, the Journal noted a 2% rise from 2019 in the total number of deaths. This is accurate, but as we can see, it is well within the range of similar increases in total deaths in recent years, such as the 2.2% rise in 2018 or the 1.8% rise in 2016. It is, though, some way off the 3% increase in total deaths in 2015. Yet never in any of these years was the Journal troubled enough by this growth in mortality to pass comment on it.

The Independent, somewhat bizarrely, claimed that 2020’s numbers were 15% higher than those of 2010. Of all the years the Independent could pick to compare 2020 with, it chose the one which had recorded the lowest number of deaths for any year since records began back in the 1870s. When looking at deaths in Ireland, every year compares unfavourably with 2010.

Although the Independent claims that the increase in the number of deaths between 2010 and 2020 was 15%, the actual figure is 13.6%. To put this into perspective, between 2010 and 2016 there was a 9.8% increase in total deaths, and between 2010 and 2018, the figure rose by 11.3%. As time goes on, and for reasons (which we will discuss in a moment) other than population growth or Covid, comparisons with 2010 will continue to produce higher and higher percentages. Sadly, some might say disgracefully, this kind of disingenuous use of statistics has been characteristic of mainstream media coverage of Covid-19 and the issues relating to it.

The increase in the number of deaths in 2015, 2016, 2018 and 2020 can be clearly seen on the above chart, but you will notice that in each instance there is barely any effect on the CMR. Ireland’s deaths per head of population has remained at much the same level for the last ten years, up to and including 2020.

Perhaps the clearest trend on this chart is the reduction in the CMR from 1996 (when it stood at 875) to 2010 (when it was at 614). With the exception of 1999, every other year in this range shows a significant fall in the crude mortality rate. This is a trend which goes right back to the 1870s, when Ireland’s CMR was an intimidating 1806 per 100,000 people.

 

Ireland’s Crude Mortality Rate per 100,000 from the 1880s to the 1990s

Decade CMR Decade CMR
1870s 1806 1940s 1397
1880s 1756 1950s 1218
1890s 1770 1960s 1163
1900s 1691 1970s 1055
1910s 1664 1980s 922
1920s 1445 1990s 870
1930s 1418

 

These numbers make it clear that we are living through a period of historically very low mortality (when compared to both the recent and the more distant past) and that 2020 fits right into this pattern. The CMRs for the fourteen years between 2007 and 2020 are the fourteen lowest on record, with 2020’s rate being the ninth lowest of all time. However, the CMR doesn’t tell the whole story.

 

The Age-Standardised Mortality Rate (ASMR)

The populations of Niger and Japan have very different age structures.

Last year,Niger’s CMR was 1,020, while Japan’s was 1,095. On the surface, it’s quite an achievement for one of the world’s least developed countries to have a lower mortality rate thanone of its most technologically advanced. But when we stop to consider that Niger in 2020 was home to the world’s youngest population, and Japan its oldest, Niger’s crude mortality rate stops being impressive and starts to become troubling.

It’s an inescapable fact that (all other things being equal) the older one is, the more likely one is to die. Consequently, the higher the number of older people in a population, the more deaths we would expect. Conversely, we would expect fewer deaths in a younger population. We saw that when we look only at the total number of deaths, we ignore the size of a population. In the same way, when we look only at CMR, we ignore the population’s age.

To consider the age of a population, we can use a measure called the age-standardised mortality rate (ASMR). ASMR is calculated by mathematically adjusting a population so its age structure conforms to that of a ‘standard population’. The population can then be compared with other populations (which have been similarly adjusted to the ‘standard population’) as if they all had the same age structure. You can learn more about ASMR here.

Because it takes both a population’s size and its age into consideration, ASMR is one of the metrics most widely used around the world to compare mortality. The WHO, the CDC, the NHS and the Department of Health all make use of ASMR.

Ireland has clearly undergone a dramatic demographic shift since the 1800s, but there have been significant changes in recent years too. Published shortly before the beginning of the Covid period, on 27th December 2019, the Department of Health’s Health in Ireland: Key Trends report highlights the increase in Ireland’s population of older people:

“The numbers and proportion of the population in the older age groups continues to grow…The population aged 65 and over has increased by 35.2% since 2009, which is considerably higher than the EU average increase of 16.5%.”

Commenting on the report, then Minister for Health Simon Harris said,

“A striking feature is the growth in the number of people aged over 65. Each year this cohort increases by almost 20,000 people.”

When we examine the figures more closely, the impression they make is even more striking. Since 2009, Ireland’s 85+ population has increased by 50% (from 54,000 to 81,200). The 75-84 age group has grown by 37% (163,700 to 223,900), and the 65-74 band by 48% (281,100 to 415,000).

At the same time, there have been reductions in the younger cohorts. The 25-34 group has fallen by 21% (775,100 to 616,200), the 15-24 group by 3% (648,700 to 631,100), and the 0-4 group by 8% (335,200 to 309,500). In the remaining age bands there has been growth, but nothing like the rates seen in the 65+ groups. So when we measure deaths in Ireland in 2020 against those of previous years, it is with ASMR that we can make the clearest comparison.

We can see Ireland’s ASMR (red line) from 1996 to 2020 on the above chart. If we look at 2010, we see that the total number of deaths (brown line) begins to rise, and the CMR (green line) straightens out. The ASMR, though, continues to fall. And it doesn’t stop falling. Right up to, and including, 2020. Yes, that is correct: Ireland’s ASMR dropped in 2020. In fact it fell to its lowest ever rate (878).

This was the year in which we were supposedly ravaged by the ‘novel’ coronavirus. It was the year when primary healthcare was effectively withdrawn, when screenings and surgeries were cancelled. It was the year when medical staff were frequently forced to self-isolate and when many people were too terrified of the spectre of Covid-19 to seek medical attention when they needed it. And in the same year that all of this was taking place, Ireland’s ASMR fell to a record low.

And it is far from the only mortality record to have been broken in Ireland in 2020.

 

Leading Causes of Death

Although Ireland’s record low mortality rate for 2020 is never discussed in the media, on some very rare occasions the question arises as to why there weren’t more deaths in Ireland from Covid-19 (like the 85,000 deaths predicted by then Taoiseach (Prime Minister) Leo Varadkar in March 2020). The answer is usually that it is because mitigation measures worked: it was by imposing one of the longest and strictest lockdowns in the world that the Irish Government managed to save so many lives. As the Journal put it in March 2021,

“Ultimately, lockdowns have played a part in keeping the total number of deaths last year lower than they would be, had they not been implemented.

With case numbers now falling – as they did in the latter part of previous lockdowns – this is now evident again.”

Despite there being no scientific basis for this assertion (and there being plenty of scientific studies to suggest that lockdowns do nothing to slow the spread of Covid-19), and despite the contrasting experiences of Peru (which combined the world’s strictest lockdown with its highest fatality rate) and Sweden (where a policy of no lockdown resulted in one of the lowest increases in mortality in all of Europe), the Government and its cheerleaders persist with the myth that lives were saved because of lockdowns (In fact the Chief Medical Officer is threatening to save us once again, even as I write).

The logic behind this claim (fewer people out and about spreading germs) is also used to support the spurious notion that flu disappeared from the world in 2020.

It seems to be easy for some to believe that lockdowns, face masks and social distancing have protected us from the worst effects of Covid-19, saving innumerable lives in the process. But surely it’s harder to accept that these measures could have had a similar impact on the leading causes of death? On conditions such as heart disease, cancer and dementia?

The above chart compares the ASMRs for the four leading causes of death in Ireland in 2020 (green bars) to the 5-year averages (2015-2019) (red bars). Between them, these causes are responsible for approximately four out of every five deaths that take place in this country each year.

The first category, circulatory diseases, includes conditions like heart disease, heart attacks and strokes. In May, the Irish Journal of Medical Science published a paper which examined the impact of Covid-19 on heart surgery at the Mater Hospital’s National Centre for Cardiothoracic Surgery between January and April of 2020. The study found that in March and April of 2020, when compared to the same months for the previous year, the number of surgeries performed had dropped by 51%.

The authors noted,

“Patients have become very afraid and also have declined dates of surgery offered to them.”

2020 was not a year in which those requiring hospital services were encouraged to avail of them. Several UK studies show that admissions for heart problems fell significantly for much of last year. So it comes as a shock to discover that the ASMR for circulatory diseases in Ireland in 2020 was, at 248, not only 15% lower than the 5-year average of 291, but also the lowest figure on record for this category.

The ASMR is not the only measure by which circulatory diseases scores lowest. The CMR (which, you’ll remember, doesn’t take into account our ageing population) is also at a record low, coming in at 176, 7% under the 5-year average of 190. Even the total number of deaths, which considers neither our ageing population nor our population growth, is below the 5-year average. Total deaths from circulatory diseases in 2020 stood at 8,774, 4% under the 5-year average of 9,114.

In November 2020, the British Medical Journal published a study which showed that even a two week delay to surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy can increase a cancer patient’s risk of death by 4%. After 12 weeks, this figure rises to 26%. In May 2020, speaking to the Irish Times, Dr. Claire Faul, director of the Oncology Network at St. Luke’s Hospital (one of Ireland’s most well-known centres for cancer treatment), stated,

“Patients are extremely concerned about coming into hospital at the moment – there is a nervousness about picking up the virus.”

In the same article, we are told that the number of people referred by GPs to cancer services had dropped by more than half after the introduction of Covid-19 restrictions. Screening for cancers was also dramatically reduced in 2020.

Although the full impact of the withdrawal of oncological care won’t be felt for several years, it’s nevertheless surprising to find that the ASMR for cancer in Ireland in 2020 is another all-time record low. At 256, it is 8% under the 5-year average of 278. The CMR for cancers is 192, 2.5% below the 5-year average of 197.

The third category, respiratory diseases, includes pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and influenza (but NOT Covid-19). The ASMR for respiratory diseases in Ireland in 2020 is yet another record low. At 98, it stands a full 24% under the 5-year average of 128. The CMR, at 68, is 17% below the 5-year average of 82. The total number of deaths from respiratory diseases in 2020 was 3,404, 14% under the 5-year average of 3,943. The reduction in the rates and numbers for this category in 2020 is truly astonishing.

None of the reductions in the figures for respiratory diseases have anything to do with the flu mysteriously disappearing. There were actually more deaths from influenza in Ireland last year than usual (although influenza accounts for only a small number of deaths each year, about 0.2% of the total). Most of the reductions came in the categories of chronic lower respiratory disease (which includes COPD), and pneumonia.

The final category included in the chart is mental and behavioural disorders. Although the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) definition of mental and behavioural disorders includes conditions as diverse as alcoholism and schizophrenia, the vast majority of deaths recorded in this grouping each year in Ireland occur due to dementia.

We know that last year, patients in nursing homes throughout Ireland were treated abysmally by the Department of Health. In June 2020, the Alzheimer’s Society carried out a survey of 128 care homes in the United Kingdom. The survey’s results showed that 79% of these facilities had reported that a lack of social contact, due to Covid-19 mitigation measures, was causing deterioration in the health and wellbeing of residents who were suffering from dementia. Indications of this deterioration included some patients refusing to eat and others losing the ability to speak.

Considering that the Covid-19 regulations which were imposed on nursing homes in Ireland differed little from those put in place in the UK, it’s remarkable that the ASMR for mental and behavioural disorders in Ireland in 2020 stands at 53, 12% below the 5-year average of 60.

It’s important to point out that these levels of reductions, across all the leading causes of death at the same time, are more than unusual. This is not just some kind of statistical anomaly that takes place every few years. When we consider that this occurred at a time of already historically low mortality, the numbers become questionable. When we remember that this was the year the health system was put on hold, that so many medical personnel were forced to home quarantine, and that bed numbers in hospitals were sharply reduced because of social distancing measures, these reductions are, quite simply, unbelievable.

The Department of Health is usually not shy to congratulate itself. One of the main themes of its Key Trends report, published in December 2019, is a reduction in the ASMR over the previous decade. The Department was quick to publicise this drop and to take credit for it, so why do we hear nothing today from the Department about its glorious performance in 2020? Can we now add humility to the ever growing list of bizarre side-effects of Covid-19?

Deaths from the four leading causes listed on the chart above accounted for 79% of Ireland’s deaths during the five year period 2015-2019 (121,382 out of 153,486). In 2020, they accounted for only 74% (23,516 out of 31,765). The Central Statistics Office (CSO) attributes 1,672 deaths in 2020 to Covid-19. These Covid deaths make up just over 5% of the total.

94% of the deaths attributed to Covid-19 occurred in the 65+ age group (1,575). It is in this same cohort that we see the most pronounced reductions in mortality rates for the leading causes of death.

Figures published last November by the Central Statistics Office (CSO) showed that, at that time, over 93% of those whose deaths had been recorded as Covid-19 had had an underlying condition. The vast majority of these people (92%) were over 65.

We saw, in an earlier article, how guidance issued by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in April 2020 created special rules for the registration of Covid-19 deaths, rules which dictated that the merest suspicion this virus was present required a person’s death to be recorded as Covid. These rules, in the WHO’s own words, were to be followed “whether they can be considered medically correct or not.”

A chorus of medical professionals expressed their concerns that the WHO’s guidance would give a distorted and misleading picture of mortality, and would lead to the overestimation of deaths from Covid-19 and the underestimation of those from other causes. I believe this is exactly what we’re seeing in the Vital Statistics Yearly Summary 2020.

Last year was no ordinary year. It was one in which hospitals across Ireland closed their doors, cancelling surgeries, screenings and consultations. One when GP appointments took place over the telephone (or, if your doctor was sufficiently high-tech,on Zoom). Many people were too frightened to seek medical attention when they needed it because of their fear of catching Covid. Others, who braved the deadly virus, were judged by Gardai (police) to not be in sufficient need of treatment and told to go back home.

Medical experts warned of the excess mortality to be expected due to Covid-19 mitigation measures. But, instead, mortality rates for the leading causes of death (and for all-cause mortality) have fallen to record levels. Is it possible that the dissenting medical professionals called it right? Are deaths from other causes being undercounted because Covid-19 deaths are being overcounted? And if not, where have all the deaths from circulatory diseases, respiratory illnesses, cancers and dementia gone?

To sum up: In 2020, Ireland’s ASMR for all-cause mortality was at its lowest ever level. ASMRs for Circulatory Disease (248), Cancer (256) and Respiratory Disease (98) were all at their lowest ever levels. The ASMR for Mental and Behavioural Disorders was below the 5-year average. The total number of deaths from Circulatory Diseases and Respiratory Diseases were below the 5-year average. CMRs for all four leading causes of death were below the 5-year average.

The four leading causes of death accounted for 79% of all deaths in Ireland between 2014 and 2019. In 2020 they accounted for 74%. In 2020, deaths attributed to Covid-19 accounted for 5.3% of the total.

This information paints a very different picture of what happened in this country last year to the official one composed by the Government and faithfully reproduced by the mainstream media. In reality, as opposed to in the news, 2020 was a year of historically low mortality in Ireland.

 

A Year Without Covid

I mentioned that 93% of people in Ireland whose deaths had been classified as Covid-19 had suffered from an underlying condition. We hear this a lot, whether it’s the USCDC’s figure of 94%, the UKONS’s 87%, or the Italian Istituto Superiore di Sanità’s 99%.

It can be argued, quite reasonably of course, that having an underlying condition doesn’t necessarily mean that a person is going to die in a matter of days or weeks: depending on what the condition is and what the individual’s circumstances are, a person could live with a comorbidity for years or even decades. However, when presented with this argument in the context of Covid-19, we are asked to believe that the majority of people whose deaths were attributed to the virus had been struck down, that they had been robbed of quality time by Covid, that without it they would still be alive.

Let’s assume, for a moment, that this is true: that if it hadn’t been for the new coronavirus, the 1,672 deaths attributed by the CSO to Covid-19 would not have happened. That the people concerned would have lived, in the absence of Covid, until at least the end of last year.

Here’s how the mortality chart for Ireland would look if that had been the case:

 

As you can see, if Covid-19 hadn’t arrived on these shores in 2020, last year’s already historically low ASMR of 878 would have plummeted a further 5.5% to 830. The CMR, which was already the ninth lowest of all time at 638, would have fallen to 604, bucking the trend of the previous nine years and becoming Ireland’s historical low at 605 (comfortably beating 2010’s record low CMR of 615). And the total number of deaths, despite our growing and ageing population, would have dropped to 30,093, the lowest number since 2014, and one of the lowest numbers since records began in the 1870s.

If the 1,672 people in Ireland in 2020 whose deaths were attributed to Covid-19 had truly been robbed of their lives and if, were it not for the novel coronavirus, they could have been expected to live for even a few months longer, we would now be celebrating 2020 as a miracle year, the year when we finally stood up to death.

Above are Ireland’s death rates and numbers from 2015 to 2020. I’ve listed 2020 twice: the second instance includes the deaths attributed to Covid-19 by the CSO, the first excludes them.

Even when set against the historically low mortality of the previous five years, 2020 with Covid-19 compares favourably. But when we look at 2020 without Covid, we see that It scores comfortably the lowest amount by every metric.

Are we to believe that, had Covid-19 not reared its ugly head, this would be an accurate picture of mortality in Ireland for 2020? Or maybe, just maybe, that by following the WHO guidance, large numbers of people whose deaths would previously have been chalked up to heart disease, respiratory illness, cancer, dementia and a host of other ailments, have had their deaths misleadingly attributed to Covid?

I have no doubt that some small few of these people died as a result of the new coronavirus, but it was clear long before the Vital Statistics Yearly Summary 2020came out that the WHO’s instructions were going to result in vast numbers of deaths being recorded inaccurately as Covid-19.

Last month, in response to a citizens’ petition, a Portuguese court ruled that, of the approximately 17,000 deaths in that country between January 2020 and April 2021 which had been registered as Covid-19, only 152 of them (0.9%) were actually due to the virus. All the rest had died from various other causes, but, in line with the WHO’s guidance, positive PCR test results meant that their deaths had to be recorded as Covid-19. The numbers in the CSO’s report simply confirm that the same thing has taken place in Ireland.

If I haven’t convinced you that this is the case, I hope you at least feel that Ireland’s mortality figures for 2020 are strange, and considering the increasingly severe and divisive measures being taken by the Government in the name of fighting Covid-19, worthy of your further interest.

There have been a lot of numbers in this article, and I thank you for your patience. But I will leave you with one more: 2,237. This is the number of deaths which the Department of Health attributes to Covid-19 in Ireland in 2020. We have seen how the CSO’s figure of 1,672 deaths is a vast overestimation of the actual total, yet the Department’s number is a staggering 34% higher than the CSO’s. Of course it is the Department’s further inflated figure exclusively which is used by the news media when reporting daily Covid deaths and Covid death totals.

The wisest and most shrewd of Ireland’s mythological heroes is Finn McCool. According to legend, McCool lies sleeping in a cave under Dublin and will return to defend Ireland in the hour of her greatest need. If he’s not stirring by now, he likely never will. Because the alarm sounded when a government mandates segregation, or when it keeps official death totals in addition to actual ones, should be loud enough to raise the dead. Surely nobody who counts themselves among the living can be sleeping through this?

 

Methods

This section contains links to sources for all the data used in this article, and a brief description of how I made my calculations.

 

Data Sources

 

Population

1996-2001: CSO Population and Migration Estimates 2003 (Table 1) [link]

2002-2005: CSO Population and Migration Estimates 2007 (Table 1) [link]

2006-2011: CSO Population and Migration Estimates 2012 (Table 6) [link]

2012-2016: CSO Population and Migration Estimates 2017 (Table 7) [link]

2017-2020: CSO Population and Migration Estimates 2020 (Table 7) [link]

 

Deaths

1996-2014: CSO Vital Statistics Annual Report 2018 (Table 3.1) [link]

2015: CSO Vital Statistics Annual Report 2015 (Table 3.9) [link]

2016: CSO Vital Statistics Annual Report 2016 (Table 3.9) [link]

2017: CSO Vital Statistics Annual Report 2017 (Table 3.9) [link]

2018: CSO Vital Statistics Annual Report 2018 (Table 3.9) [link]

2019: CSO Vital Statistics Yearly Summary 2019 (Table 12) [link]

2020: CSO Vital Statistics Yearly Summary 2020 (Table 12) [link]

Historical Crude Mortality Rate

CSO Vital Statistics Annual Report 2018 (Table 3.2) [link]

Standard Population

European Standard Population 2013[link]

 

Calculations

CMR

CMR per 100,000 = (Deaths/Population) x 100,000

ASMR

Standard population used was the European Standard Population 2013 (ESP).

Because the data which I wanted to study (Table 12 of the CSO’sVital Statistics Yearly Summary 2020), is stratified into 10-year age groups, and the ESP into 5-year age groups, it was necessary to distribute the ESP so it matched the age structure of the CSO’s data. Here are the values I used:

Age Group Weight
0-4 0.05
5-14 0.11
15-24 0.115
25-34 0.125
35-44 0.14
45-54 0.14
55-64 0.125
65-74 0.105
75-84 0.065
85+ 0.025

Age-specific death rates (CMRs) were calculated for each age group

ASMR per 100,000 = SUM (Age-specific death rate per 100,000 x Standard Population Weight).

 

Notes

There is normally a 17 month gap between the CSO’s publication of itsYearly Summaryand itsAnnual Reportfor a given year. For example, theYearly Summaryfor 2018 was published in May 2019; theAnnual Reportfor 2018 was published in October 2020. As a result, the most current official data available about mortality in Ireland in 2019 and 2020 is contained in theYearly Summariesfor these years.

To take into account differences in the criteria which these reports use to count mortality (theAnnual Reportcounts deaths which occurred in the year in question, theYearly Summarydeaths which were registered), I additionally compared mortality data from theVital Statistics Yearly Summary2020with that from theVital Statistics Yearly Summaries2015-2019, as all of these reports use the same criteria for counting mortality.[1]The results were very similar to those produced in comparisons made with theVital Statistic Annual Reportsfor the same years (so similar that I didn’t include them in the article in order to avoid repetition). Here are links to theVital Statistics Yearly Summariesfor these years:2015,2016,2017,2018,2019.

The original subheading for this post read, “2020 was a record breaking year for Ireland’s death rates. In fact, a government report shows that some of last year’s numbers were thelowestof all time.” This was changed on 20/07/21, when a helpful reader pointed out that ‘last years numbers” could be interpreted as last year’s total number of deaths rather than last year’s mortality rates, which it reffered to.

[1]This paragraph originally read, “In a typical year,around 3%of deaths in Ireland are registered late. To take this into account, I additionally compared mortality data from theVital Statistics Yearly Summary2020with that from theVital Statistics Yearly Summaries2015-2019, as all of these reports share the same limitation.” As a helpful reader pointed out, it is not the number of late registrations which is the main difference between the two reports, but the criteria for counting mortality

 


 

Graham Reid is a writer and teacher based in Dublin. His areas of interest include history, politics and popular music. He currently contributes to https://notesfromthenewnormal.com/

 

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